But the WTO is an organization of countries and their governments. The WTO does not deal with business and cannot regulate businesses through measures such as dumping. Therefore, the anti-dumping agreement only concerns the measures that governments can take to combat dumping. With subsidies, governments act on both sides: they subsidize and act against each other. As a result, the grant agreement disciplines both grants and reactions. Introducing subsidies and countervailing measures in the WTO Links to subsidies and countervailing measures Section of the WTO`s “Understanding the WTO” Guide. In critical cases where the authorities find that a hardship that is difficult to repair is caused by massive imports within a relatively short period of time of a product benefiting from subsidies not related to the provisions of the 1994 GATT and this agreement, and where it is deemed necessary to prevent a recurrence of such harm. to retroactively assess countervailing duties on these imports, final countervailing duties on imported imports no later than 90 days before the date of provisional consumption measures can be assessed. The authorities give all interested members and interested parties the opportunity, in due course, to consult all relevant information for the presentation of their cases, which are not confidential within the meaning of paragraph 4 and which are used by the authorities to conduct an investigation into countervailing duties, and to prepare submissions on the basis of this information. In exceptional circumstances, members referred to in paragraph 1 may abstain from their notified programs and measures and the Committee considers that their delay in resigning is necessary for the transformation process.
(34) The provisions of Part II or III may be invoked in parallel with the provisions of Part V; However, with respect to the effects of a certain subsidy on the importing member`s domestic market, only one form of exemption (either a countervailing duty if the Part V requirements are met, or a counter-measure in accordance with Articles 4 or 7) is available.