The Canada-China Agreement on Mutual Investment Promotion and Protection, or Canada China FIPA, is a bilateral investment agreement between Canada and China that came into effect on October 1, 2014.   The Foreign Investment Protection Agreement (FIPA) or the Foreign Investment Protection and Promotion Agreement (FIPPA) are Canadian names for ILO. Until 2015, some 460 Canadian companies were present in China.  Justin Trudeau became Prime Minister of Canada in October 2015, and China-Canada relations improved for at least two years. In Mexico, the prospects for independent trade union formation are in fact quite limited – and often subject to various forms of state coercion and violence. Yet Mexico has never been penalized under the North American Labour Cooperation Agreement (NAALC). Nevertheless, a certain degree of communication has been made between governments, businesses and trade unions. As a general rule, public institutions or agencies (like agreements reached under the agreements of the International Labour Organization and the World Trade Organization, of which China is already a member), are held responsible for the settlement of labour and trade disputes. However, the most important point to address here is that a labour agreement would allow Canada to cooperate more closely with China and within China to help improve working conditions. This is no different from the $65 million in foreign aid that Canada provided to China in 2005 to improve its legal system. A free trade agreement would be a long-term agreement between the two countries and would likely require both sides to increase trade and improve the working conditions that China would clearly benefit from a human rights perspective.
Learn more about Canada`s trade and investment agreements: types of contracts and the gradual development of trade and investment agreements. In late September 2019, Toronto-born freelance journalist Toby Gu travelled to Hong Kong and produced “graphic images of a battered man and confrontations between protesters and police.” Gu appeared in a hard hat, light glasses and a gas mask in the foreground of a burning street corner, and said he wanted to “share the brutality, pain and hardship that Hong Kongers go through every day when they try to get out and fight for their freedom.”  During Harper`s visit to China in February 2012, some commentators in the Canadian media reported that the Chinese government was much more welcoming than in 2009. Harper met with President Hu and Prime Minister Wen and signed a series of economic agreements prepared by Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird, including a uranium export treaty and the Canada-China Agreement for The Promotion and Mutual Protection of Investments (CCPRPIA), which has been linked by the media to other potential Chinese investments in the Athabasca oil sands and has been negotiated for 18 years. The negotiations and the text itself were kept secret until November 2016. Chinese government officials have suggested that the next logical step would be a free trade agreement that Canadian officials have promised to consider.  In 2013, Canadian oil and gas company Nexen became a wholly-based subsidiary of Hong Kong-based CNOOC Limited. According to the Reuters news agency, “the agreement provided access to an area of the Gulf of Mexico, the British North Sea and off the coast of West Africa.”  According to maclean`s, “the CNOOC-Nexen agreement has been highly controversial as to the extent to which foreign state control over Canadian resources is acceptable.